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中国文化概论(二):Classical Literature  

2011-07-03 13:26:33|  分类: 【课件汇集】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Pre-Qin Literature

Book of Songs/Poetry《诗经》

l  Author: edited by Confucius

l  Content: anthology of 305 poems, folk songs, songs used by nobles

l  Significance: beginning of the Chinese literary tradition

Li Sao / The Lament《离骚》

l  Author: Qu Yuan 屈原

?          Given name: Ping

?          father of Chinese poetry

l  Content: It portraits Qu Yuan himself

l  Significance:

?          the longest and greatest lyric in ancient China

?          first peak of Chinese literature

Book of Mountains and Seas《山海经》

l  Author: collectively compiled

l  Content: centering on geography, and covers many other disciplines

l  Significance: a unique encyclopedia

Qin and Han Dynasties (221BC—220AD)

Introduction

l  Poetry, prose and fu () flourished

l  Fu: a type of prose-poem with introductory, concluding, or other interspersed passages that are in prose, typically in the form of questions and answers

?          rhapsody

?          rhyme-prose

?          exposition

?          poetical essay

Sima Xiangru (司马相如)

?          established fu as a literary genre

?          Tianzi Youlie Fu天子游猎赋》(Rhapsody on the Son of Heaven on a Leisurely Hunt

?          Chang Men Fu《长门赋》(Rhapsody on the Wide Gate)

Yuefu, or Music Bureau (乐府)

l  Yuefu

?          an official constitution for collecting folk songs and composing music for them

?          the general term for the folk songs collected

l  Yuefu is another peak of Chinese classical poetry after Book of Songs and Chuci《楚辞》.

Flight of the Phoenix to the Southeast 《孔雀东南飞》

l  Content: the tragedy of a young married couple who commit suicide as the result of the cruelty of the husband’s mother

l  Significance

?          the first long narrative poem in China

?          the most outstanding folk ballad of the Qin an Han Dynasties

Prose

l  Historical Records/Shiji《史记》

?          Sima Qian (司马迁)

l  Significance: a model of prose writing

The Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties (220—581)

Poetry

l  Poetry flourished in the Wei and Jin dynasties

?          another peak in the history of Chinese culture

l  Outstanding men of letters: 

?          Cao Cao (曹操)

?          Cao Zhi (曹植)

?          Ruan Ji  (阮籍)

?          Ji Kang  (嵇康)

?          Tao Yuanming (陶渊明)particular noted for his idyllic poems (田园诗)

l  Folk songs: the Southern and Northern Dynasties

?          Southern Dynasties:  love songs

?          Best known: “Lyric of Xizhou西洲曲

?          Northern Dynasties: folk songs expressing people’s militancy

?          Best known: “The Song of Mulan 木兰诗

The Anthology of Cao Cao 《曹操集》

l  Author: Cao Cao

?          founder of the Jian’an Literature (建安文学)

?          founder of Jian’an Style (建安风骨)

l  Content: collection of more than 20 poems

l  Characteristic:

?          heroism and great ease

?          optimistic and enterprising 

Jian’an Literature (建安文学)

?          During the Jian-an period at the end of the Han Dynasty, the “Three Caos” (Cao Cao, Cao Pi 曹丕, and Cao Zhi曹植) and the “Seven Masters of Jian’an 建安七子 ” sustained the realism of Yue fu folksongs and wrote five-character poems, unleashing an upsurge in scholarly poetry.

?          Seven Masters of Jian’an (建安七子): Kong Rong 孔融、Chen Lin 陈琳、Wang Can 王粲、 Xu Gan 徐干、Ruan Yu 阮瑀、Ying Yang 应玚、Liu Zhen刘桢

Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (竹林七贤)

l  a group of seven men during the Western Jin dynasty

?          exhibited behaviors unrestrained by traditional and social conventions

?          often got together to make music and drink wine in bamboo groves

l  Members

?          Ji Kang 嵇康, Ruan Ji 阮籍, Shan Tao 山涛, Xiang Xiu 向秀, Liu Ling 刘伶, Ruan Xian 阮咸, Wang Rong 王戎

Collected Works of Tao Yuanming 《陶渊明集》

l  Author: Tao Yuanming 陶渊明

?          a master of Yinyi School of Poetry (隐逸派)

?          a master of the Five-Character Verse

?          the first great nature poet in China

 

l  Content:

?          the rural scenery

?          the poet’s engagement in farm work

?          the straits of his life as a hermit

l  Representative Works:

?          House –moving 移居

?          Memory of the Rural Cottage 怀古田舍

?          Return to Rural Life《归去来兮辞》

?          The Peach Garden《桃花源记》(prose masterpiece)

Stories of Immortals/ Notes of Collecting Gods/ Records of Spirits《搜神记》

l  Author: Gan Bao 干宝

l  Content: collection of the mythical stories of those days

l  Significance:

?          It criticizes the cruel and ferocious ruling class.

?          It praises the oppressed working people.

Literary Mind and Carving of Dragon《文心雕龙》

l  Author: Liu Xie 刘勰

l  Content: literary principles and criticism written in the parallel prose style

l  Significance:

?          the first book of literary criticism in China

?          It sums up the literary trends in the previous times.

Sayings of the World《世说新语》

l  Author: Liu Yiqing 刘义庆

l  Content: Collection of anecdotes of “pure conversation” 清谈 (an intellectual discussion on lofty matters)

l  Significance:

?          the revolt against imitative writing in a 5th-century style

Tang Dynasty (618—907)

Poetry

l  China’s golden age of poetry

l  The Complete Collections of Tang Poems 全唐诗》: 2,208 poets, 48,977 pieces

l  The writing adapted traditional verse forms and created new ones.

l  The new and popular forms

?          lv shi (律诗)regulated verse

?          Jue ju (绝句)truncated verse

?          Ci (): a song-form poem

l  Regulated verse (律诗):  eight lines of five or seven characters set in accordance with strict tonal patterns

l  Truncated verse (绝句): it omits four of the lines of regulated verse but maintains the tonal qualities

An Anthology of Li Taibai《李太白集》

l  Author: Li Bai

?          Academic name: Taibai (太白)

?          Style name: Lay Buddhist of Qinglian (青莲居士)

?          the greatest romantic poet in ancient China after Qu Yuan

l  Achievements:

?          vigorous and enthusiastic

?          active romanticism

?          the pinnacle of classical poetry

?          “Poet Immortal” (诗仙)

An Anthology of Du Fu《杜工部集》

l  Author: Du Fu

?          Academic name: Zimei (子美)

?          Style name: Shaoling Yelao (少陵野老)

?          Du Gongbu (杜工部)

?          the greatest poet of realism in ancient China

?          “The Sage of Poetry” (诗圣)

l  Achievements:

?          His poems faithfully and profoundly reflect the social realities of the Tang Dynasty in decline.

?           “history in poems” 诗史

An Anthology of Bai Xiangshan《白氏长庆集》  

l  Author: Bai Juyi

?          Academic name: Le tian (乐天)

?          Style name: Lay Buddhist in Xiangshan (香山居士)

l  Achievements:

?          vivid image, plain language

?          profound sympathy for the common people

l  Representatives:

?          “The Old Man Selling Charcoal” 卖炭翁

?          “Song of Eternal Sorrow” 长恨歌

?          “Song of a Pipa Girl” 琵琶行

Ci ()

l  The Ci consisted of lines of irregular length written as lyrics for music.

?          Li Bai

?          Bai Juyi

?          Wen Tingjun (温庭筠)

?          Li Yu  (李煜)

Prose

l  Chinese prose underwent a stylistic reform during the Tang period.

l  The major change was brought about by Han Yu (768-824).

l  He promoted classic Confucian doctrines and advocated a return to the free, simple prose of the ancient philosophers.

?          “Classical Prose Movement” (古文运动)

?          “Prince of Letters” (文章巨公)

The Song Dynasty (960-1279)

Ci ()

l  Ci was brought to its greatest heights.

l  Two schools of Ci

?          Graceful and Restrained School      婉约派

?          Powerful and Free School           豪放派

l  The early Ci: sentiments and parting sorrow

?          Liu Yong 柳永

?          Zhou Bangyan 周邦彦

?          Li Qingzhao 李清照

l  late Northern Song Dynasty:

?          Su Shi    苏轼    natural scenes and his emotions

?          Xin Qiji 辛弃疾 grief and indignation

l  The Southern Song Dynasty:

?          Yue Fei             岳飞

?          Wen Tianxiang 文天祥

A Collection of Li Qingzhao《易安居士文集》

l  Author: Li Qingzhao (李清照)

?          Style name: Lay Buddhist Yian (易安居士)

?          the first outstanding female Ci poet in China

l  Achievement:

?          strong and sincere in emotion

?          plain, fresh, graceful as well as restrained in style

?          good at expressing her joy and sorrow in simple but profound words.

Poetry

l  Northern Song period:

?          Wang Anshi (王安石)

?          Su Shi           (苏轼 )

l  Southern Song Period:

?          Lu You          (陆游)

The Collected Works of Su Dongpo《东坡乐府》

l  Author: Su Dongpo

?          Academic name: Zizhan (子瞻)

?          Style name: Lay Buddhist Dongpo (东坡居士)

l  His prose:

?          ease and simplicity

?          “floating clouds and running water, without a fixed nature, going where proper and stopping where they should”(如行云流水,初无定质,但常行于所当行,常止于所当止)

l  His poems:

?          ease and simplicity

l  His Ci

?          freed the form and bettered the artistic conception

Xin Qiji (辛弃疾)

?          Southern Song Poet

?          Academic name: You’an (幼安)

?          Style name: Lay Buddhist of Jiaxuan (稼轩居士)

Prose

l  “Eight Great Essayists of the Tang and Song Dynasties”(唐宋八大家)

?          Tang writers: Han Yu (韩愈) , Liu Zongyuan (柳宗元)

?          Song writers: Su Shi (苏轼), Su Xun (苏洵), Su Zhe (苏辙), Ouyang Xiu (欧阳修), Wang Anshi (王安石), and Zeng Gong (曾巩)

The Collected Works of Lu You

l  Author: Lu You                   (陆游)

?          Academic name: Wuguan     (务观)

?          Style name: Fangweng          (放翁)

?          outstanding patriotic poet in the Southern Song Dynasty

l  Achievement:

?          His poems not only reflect the wishes of people for a untied country but also criticize the surrender and submissiveness of the rulers.

?          He expressed his firm determination to join the army and sacrifice for the country as well as his such unfulfilled ambitions.

Yuan, or Mongol, Dynasty (1279-1368)

Drama

l  Chinese drama

?          vernacular language

?          music and song

l  Zaju (杂剧) was the greatest achievement in the literature of the Yuan Dynasty.

l  It had a far-reaching influence on the later development of playwriting and acting as well as on the rise of various forms of operas.

Guan Han-Qing (关汉卿) (1241-1320)

?          The first, and probably the greatest, playwright of classical theater

?          60 plays

?          His best works:

u  Injustice Suffered by Dou-E / Snow in Midsummer 《窦娥冤》

u  The Riverside Pavilion 《望江亭》

u  Saving a Prostitute / Saving Women 《救风尘》

Romance of the Western Chamber《西厢记》

l  Author: Wang Shifu (王实甫) (1250-1337?)

l  Content: the romantic exploits of the poet Yuan Zhen 元稹, renamed Zhang Jun-rui 张君瑞 in the play

l  Significance:

?          the best ancient love play in China

?          notable for its length, two or three times that of the standard Yuan drama

Ming and Qing Dynasties (1368-840)

Drama

?          great period of fiction and drama

?          Chuan-qi 传奇 (tales of marvels) became popular.

?          Kun school 昆曲 was formed in the 16th century.

?          The best plays in the Ming Dynasty :

?          The Tale of the Lute《琵琶记》 by Gao Ming 高明

?          The Peony Pavilion《牡丹亭》 by Tang Xianzu 汤显祖

?          The best Plays in the Qing Dynasty:

?          The Peach-Blossom Fan《桃花扇》 by Kong Shangren 孔尚任

?          Hall of Everlasting《长生殿》 by Hong Sheng 洪升

Four Great Classical Novels (四大古典名著)

l  the greatest and most influential in classical Chinese fiction

l  the pinnacle of China’s achievement in classical novels

?          The Water Margin             《水浒》

?          Romance of the Three Kingdoms 《三国演义》

?          Journey to the West         《西游记》

?          A Dream of Red Mansions           《红楼梦》

(1330-1400)

The Romance of the Three Kingdoms 《三国演义》

?          Author: Luo Guanzhong 罗贯中

?          a historical novel based on events in the turbulent years toward the end of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- A.D. 220) and the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280).

?          the extreme complexity of its stories and characters

?          The “dynastic cycle”: “The empire, long divided, must unite; long united, must divide.”

Water Margin / Outlaws of the Marsh《水浒》

l  Author: Shi Nai’an 施耐庵

l  Content:

?          a semi-historical collection of stories

?          a band of enlightened heroes

l  Achievements:

?          enormous cast (about 108 bandit-heroes

?          distinct personalities

?          intimate portrayal of the people and their society

l  Significance

?          great epic of the peasant’s wars in feudal China

Journey to the West《西游记》

l  Author: Wu Cheng-en 吴承恩

l  Content:

?          the adventures of a resourceful animal that accompanies the Buddhist monk Xuanzang 玄奘 on a pilgrimage to India

l  Significance:

?          a pinnacle of mythical work in the literary history of China and the world

A Dream of the Red Mansions《红楼梦》

l  Author:  Cao Xueqin 曹雪芹

l  Content:

?          the decline of four distinguished clans (Jia , Wang , Shi , Xue )

?          the ill-fated love between two young people (Jia Baoyu 贾宝玉 and Lin Daiyu 林黛玉)

l  Themes

?          transience of honors and riches

?          the risks of passionate desire

l  Achievement

?          a blend of

?  realism and romance,

?  psychological motivation and fate

?  daily life and supernatural occurrences

?          a faithful image of upper-class life in the early Qing Dynasty

?          a psychological depth not previously approached

Other Prose Fiction

l  Native prose fiction

?          Pu Song-ling 蒲松龄: Strange Tales from the Carefree Studio 《聊斋志异》

?          Wu Jingzi 吴敬梓: The Scholars 《儒林外史》

 

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